Holloway, Jonathan. AFAM 162, African American History: From Emancipation to the Present, Spring 2010. Open Yale Courses, http://oyc.yale.edu/african-american-studies/afam-162/lecture-5 Accessed 09/09/2014 License: Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 license. As Professor Holloway explains in this lecture, the oppressive realities of black life did not silence the most dedicated black activists. During this time, a new generation of black political and intellectual leaders, including Alexander Crummell, Anna Julia Cooper, and W. E. B. Du Bois, dedicated themselves to "uplifting" blacks politically, economically, and morally. Professor Holloway reveals what uplift means.