Prof. Shapiro, Ian, PLSC 118, The Moral Foundations of Politics, Spring 2010, YALE Open Courses: Yale University, Political Science (Accessed 05/10/2014), http://oyc.yale.edu/political-science/plsc-118/lecture-20 License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA The other anti-Enlightenment school the course explores is contemporary communitarianism. Communitarians appeal to the community-accepted values as the basis for what should guide us. The main focus of this lecture is the communitarianism of Alasdair MacIntyre. Professor Shapiro introduces this school by exploring the symptoms of the problem wrought by the Enlightenment. One is the rise of emotivism and complete moral subjectivism, and the second symptom is the triumph of instrumentalism and the rejection of teleology, which is actually a coping mechanism for society's deep pluralism of values.