Prof. Shapiro, Ian, PLSC 118, The Moral Foundations of Politics, Spring 2010, YALE Open Courses: Yale University, Political Science (Accessed 05/10/2014), http://oyc.yale.edu/political-science/plsc-118/lecture-14 License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA Professor Shapiro dives more deeply into Robert Nozick's theory of the minimal, or night watchman, state. This formulation is not redistributive, nor does it consider rights as goals, but rather as side-constraints on what we can do. In other words, Nozick's is a deontological, not teleological, approach. However, the Achilles' heel of this formulation is the incorporation of independents, based on a system of compensation. Some people will opt not to enter into our hypothetical social contract, but for the dominant protective association to protect its members from the fear of these independents, they must be forced to incorporate.